Bezpieczny Bank nr nr 4 (81) 2020, s. 111-135
https://doi.org/10.26354/bb.5.4.81.2020

Dariusz Jędrzejka
ORCID: 0000-0002-5512-1788
adiunkt, Uniwersytet Łódzki, Katedra Bankowości

Zrobotyzowana automatyzacja procesów w bankowości – szanse i wyzwania
Robotic Process Automation in Banking – Opportunities and Challenges

Streszczenie
Zrobotyzowana automatyzacja procesów (RPA) pozwala przekazać operacje wykonywane przez człowieka w systemach komputerowych robotowi programowemu (programowi), stanowiącemu „wirtualny ekwiwalent” pracownika. Jest to nowe podejście do usprawniania procesów, gdzie w odróżnieniu od tradycyjnego oprogramowania automatyzującego, roboty programowe korzystają z systemów komputerowych nie w sposób typowy dla maszyn a zbliżony do tego, jak robi to człowiek. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie zastosowania RPA w bankach oraz wskazanie jej wpływu na działanie banku oraz jego pracowników. Postawiono tezę, że robotyzacja w istotny sposób zmienia funkcjonowanie banków. W pracy posłużono się przeglądem literatury, w tym opracowań branżowych. Przedstawiono zasady działania robotów programowych, ich zalety oraz specyficzne cechy odróżniające je od alternatywnych rozwiązań usprawniających procesy. Wskazano istotne dla banków argumenty za ich wdrażaniem, a ich omówienie uzupełniono przykładami robotyzacji procesów typowych dla bankowości. Przedstawiono ryzyka i wyzwania związane z wdrażaniem robotyzacji. Wskazano oczekiwane, przyszłe kompetencje pracowników banków, które są kluczowe w pracy w wysoce zautomatyzowanym i zrobotyzowanym środowisku. W pracy zaprezentowano wieloaspektowy wpływ automatyzacji procesów na funkcjonowanie banku i jego pracowników.

Słowa kluczowe: banki, automatyzacja, zrobotyzowana automatyzacja procesów

Abstract
Robotic process automation (RPA) allows to transfer manual operations within computer systems to software robots (programs), which act as “virtual equivalents” of employees. It is a new approach to process improvement, where, unlike traditional automation software, robots use computer systems not in a way typical for machines, but similarly to how humans do. The article aims to present the application of RPA and to show its impact on the functioning of the bank as an organization level and its employees. The thesis put forward in the paper assumes that robotic automation significantly transform banks’ operation. A literature review and state-of-the-art industry reports has been used. The principles of operation of software robots, their advantages, and specific features that distinguish them from alternative solutions for improving processes are presented. Motives for their application which are relevant for banking have been presented, followed by a description of examples of robotization of bank typical processes. Risks and challenges related to the implementation of robots have been pointed out. The expected future competences of bank employees have been discussed, which may be crucial in relation to working in a highly automated and robotized environment. The paper presents the multifaceted impact of robotization on the functioning of the bank and its employees.

Key words: banks, automation, robotic process automation
JEL: G2, O33
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